Archive for February, 2010

Does power really corrupt?

Posted in philosophy, psychology on February 18, 2010 by gohelpyourself

Power can make people corrupt indeed. (photo courtesy of http://www.sxc.hu)

By Anthony O. Alcantara

“Power tends to corrupt, and absolute power corrupts absolutely. Great men are almost always bad men.”

British historian Lord Acton said it.

In the Philippines, there’s a lot of anecdotal evidence to support this. But does power really corrupt? Or does it only attract corruptible people? This calls for scientific evidence.

Recently I came across an article describing a series of experiments by Joris Lammers at Tilburg University in the Netherlands, and Adam Galinsky of Northwestern University in the US.  Let me summarize their results.

Brewing moral hypocrisy

In one experiment, they induced or “primed” people to feel that they are in a high power or low power position. How? By asking them to write about an experience that made them feel they were in a position of high power or low power. For example, a participant writing about the time when her team won the volleyball championship makes her feel powerful. Another participant writing about his failure in an important test makes him feel weak.

The high-power group and low-power group were then split into two groups. Using a nine-point morality scale, where 1 means highly immoral and 9 means highly moral, half were asked how objectionable it is for other people to over-report travel expenses at work.

The other half were asked to play dice privately in a cubicle and report the results to a lab assistant. The possible dice scores ranged from 0 to 100, with 50 being the average. The participants were then told that they will receive tickets for a lottery after the experiment depending on their reported scores in the dice game. Higher dice scores meant more tickets.

“More moral than you.”

Those in the travel expenses group who were primed to feel powerful reported a 5.8 on the morality scale compared to 7.2 for the low-power group. This indicated that the powerful were apparently more “moral” if the situation involved other people. In other words, they were more ready to condemn others.

However, in the dice game, a little hypocrisy crept in. The high-power group reported an average dice score of 70, compared to an average of 59 for the low-power group. I know the low-power group cheated a little, but then the high-power group cheated significantly more.

In other words, they were more inclined to cheat, thinking perhaps unconsciously that it was more okay for them to do so than others.

And that’s not all. There were more experiments that explored different situations such as breaking the speed limit when late for an appointment, and making tax declarations.

When people are harsher on themselves

In the tax declarations experiment, high-power individuals gave a rating of 6.6 for other people who wiggled out of paying more taxes. But if they rated themselves, they gave a much higher, or more moral, rating of 7.6.

Low-power individuals showed the opposite results. They were harsher on themselves, with 6.8, compared to 7.7 for others.

There were also studies that focused on the feeling of entitlement. As in the other experiments, one group was primed for being in a low-power position and another in a high-power position. The two groups were further divided into two. One group was made to feel that they deserved their lot. The other group was made to feel that their being in a low- or high-power position was not legitimate or undeserved.

The results showed that the high-power individuals who had been primed to feel that they were entitled to their powerful position felt there was room for a little moral hypocrisy. They felt it was more okay for them to bend the rules.

When power is undeserved

Those in the low-power position, whether they felt it was legitimate or undeserved, were all harsher on themselves.

But here’s the thing. High-power individuals who were made to feel that they did not deserve their position showed similar ratings with the low-power group. They were harsher on themselves than with others.

Of course, the experiments failed to answer other interesting questions. Are there people in the high-power group who are as virtuous as those in the low-power group? What makes them so? Are there people in the low-power position who are as morally-depraved as those in the high-power position? What can we learn from these exceptions? How can people be more moral whether or not they have power?

3 things

Now what does this mean for those of us who are going to vote?

For me, just three things to keep in mind:

1. People in power who have a strong feeling of entitlement are more likely to become corrupt.

2. A mindset of humility, perhaps what others call servant leadership, can help temper this moral hypocrisy.

3. It may be a good idea to elect a wimp to office… provided he knows he doesn’t deserve it.

Just some food for thought.

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How to choose your martial art

Posted in health and fitness, martial arts on February 9, 2010 by gohelpyourself

This is as close as I got to being an action star.

By Anthony O. Alcantara

When I was a kid, I dreamed of becoming Bruce Lee or Jackie Chan. They were my idols.

That was a long time ago, and I still haven’t even tried Jeet Kune Do or Kung Fu or any other martial art that Bruce Lee or Jackie Chan studied or practiced.

Instead I became a practitioner of Aikido, which is the discipline practiced by another martial arts hero, Steven Seagal. It’s what I predominantly practice these days. I did practice other martial arts such as Judo, Karate, Danzan Ryu Jujitsu, Kendo, and Pekiti Tirsia Kali, but not as long as I did Aikido.

“So why study martial arts?” you may ask. It’s simply because I like to learn new things. And it’s not because I want to kick ass or have girls admire me for being so manly, although that would be a welcome side effect. Anyway, different people are motivated by different things.

Right now I just want to share some tips for those who’d like to try martial arts. Some people may think they’re too old for this. But that’s nonsense. I know a woman in her forties who decided to learn Aikido some years ago. She is now a black belt and she continues to learn other martial arts as well.

Tip 1: Research.

This is the first thing you would probably do. There are many martial arts disciplines out there. Don’t limit your research to the ones you know.

Aside from finding out more about Taekwondo, Karate and Judo, also check out the lesser-known Capoeira, Pencak Silat and Sambo, to name a few. They all come in a variety of flavors. You may find something that would appeal to you.

When you research, learn the history, philosophy, basic movements, and physical requirements of the art. The internet is a good source of information. Just use Google or wikipedia.com.

Tip 2: Consider the venue.

Just like with choosing a gym, it’s better to choose a dojo, or a martial arts school, that’s near your home or place where you work.

If you choose Aikido, for example, but the dojo is far from your home, the chances of you continuing your training is low. I had colleagues who quit practicing because they found going to the dojo such a hassle.

Of course motivation is a big factor. If you are really motivated to pursue martial arts training, you will find a way. But still, finding a school near your home is much better.

Tip 3: Interview practitioners.

Knowing what practitioners of a martial art have to say about their discipline allows you to make your own judgments. You will know what motivates them.

Ask them what they like about their martial art, what difficulties they encountered when they started out, what makes them come back for more. Ask them about the inadequacies of their martial art, too. You’ll learn a lot from what they have to say.

Tip 4: See yourself sticking with it.

Imagine yourself practicing your chosen martial art. Do you see yourself doing it for months? Do you see yourself sticking with it for years? Do you think you will enjoy learning the intricacies of the techniques? What will motivate you to keep on developing yourself in this art?

Sometimes, it will depend on your temperament or personality. Imagining yourself going through the rigors of training can help.

Tip 5: Try it.

Of course, the best way to know if a martial art fits you is to try it. Observe a class first. Then ask if you can join a class or two. You’ll get a feel of what goes on during practice that way. You’ll also learn the group dynamics that occur.

Some teachers are patient and accommodating, but others are not. It’s the same with the students. Others are rough and impatient with newbies. In that case, you can choose another dojo or class.

Rewards

Learning martial arts can be serious fun. It can instill discipline, promote good health, increase flexibility and strength, improve physical coordination, and teach you conflict resolution skills, practical self-defense moves, and leadership skills. It can even help build self-confidence.

These are just a few of the wonderful possibilities. Keep in mind, though, that there is no perfect martial art. Each one has its strengths and weaknesses. Eventually some of you would want to learn other martial arts as well, just like I did.

You can actually apply the lessons you’ve learned in one martial art in another discipline. There is always a link. Some principles don’t change.

If you do decide to take up martial arts, I envy you. There’s nothing like coming for practice and learning something new. With the simple tips I listed, you may find a new world of possibilities.

Good luck.

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